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A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ILO IN THE PROTECTION OF LABOUR RIGHTS QUA EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS.

INTRODUCTION


The International Labour Organization (ILO) is one of the oldest international organizations and has a unique system of monitoring the implementation of conventions, recommendations and declarations adopted under his leadership. At the same time, many academic statements about the lack of ILO control ability are a serious obstacle to its effectiveness. The system of international labour law has undergone fundamental changes in less than a decade. This system, which has long been considered one of the most successful regimes, has changed in almost all respects. For most observers, its journey has become more convincing, and many regulations and institutions that contribute to the liberalization of international trade went through Soft Tools in 1998 in response to pressure from the International Labour Organization (ILO) to promote compliance with international law and an explanation of the basic principles and rights to work. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has responded to pressure to promote compliance with the rules for the adoption of fragile bodies in 1998, namely the basic principles and the declaration of rights in the workplace. The need to improve existing working conditions, such as the creation of the International Labour Organization (ILO), "to cause concern for many people, including injustice, difficulties and prejudices that impede world peace and harmony." -The Constitution was the main motivation for the formation of the ILO in 1919. Safety and health are based on ILO core values. The work is bad, and the improvement of working conditions is the center of social justice, prosperity, universal peace and lasting peace. This recurring discussion allows ILO outsiders to analyse labour protection activities in ILO member countries and organizations in recent years and to analyse the actual needs of members. Discussion is an appropriate opportunity to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of responses when considering future options.


Major challenges for labour protection in a transforming world of work


In the changing working conditions ILO policies and measures to improve working conditions are always considered necessary for “peace” in achieving lasting peace, ensuring a balanced distribution of honest results and holding meetings between countries. , Work safety means protecting workers from exploitation, health or risk, unfairly low or irregular incomes, unexpected work schedules and long working hours. This improves the ability of workers and their families to provide material well-being and adapt to changing working and living conditions in conditions of freedom and dignity, economic stability and equal opportunities. Labour protection and health protection was developed primarily in relation to workers, but the needs of entrepreneurs are also taken into account, especially those related to labour protection and health protection.


Occupational health and safety measures(OSH), such as minimum wage and working hours, occupational health and safety standards, and pregnancy protection, can have a short-term impact on company expenses. But in the long run, these steps can help companies invest in technological and organizational improvements to offset rising costs, thereby increasing productivity. When they are well designed and implemented, they can prevent anticompetitive practices. Labor force reduction has reduced its influence in some parts of the world, but it has also decreased in some countries due to the political cessation of collective bargaining and political support for wider labor law reform. In developing countries, the regulatory impact of collective agreements is still limited, in part due to the high level of self-employed or self-employed, as well as the low level of union membership. As a result of globalization, the world of work has changed. Currently, most of the global trade includes global buyers and suppliers, which affect the welfare of workers.


Determinants of labour protection

Here is to analyse Labour Protection and safety for three main factors: the scope of work on labour protection and safety; Protection level; Level of compliance. This determinant has its own characteristics for each dimension, but it is related to working conditions in all dimensions, such as Wages, Working hours, Labour safety and Protection against pregnancy. Other regulatory mechanisms, such as collective bargaining. In the past, some economic and professional sectors, such as agricultural and domestic workers, were excluded from labour law. Non-permanent workers may have difficulty joining a union or may be protected by collective bargaining agreements. In some countries, recent labour law reforms have narrowed the scope. Other places have gaps in the floor. Work safety can have other direct positive consequences (for example, if a company can keep qualified personnel on maternity leave or work safety standards help to avoid costly accidents. Only competitive strategies with cheap labour can have difficulty meeting labour standards and can resist, but they cannot guarantee long-term economic development. In fact, one of the initial goals of the wage phase is to prevent the spread of the "parasitic" industry. This industry was understood as insufficient wages to cover the social costs of workers.


Occupational safety and health ,Maternity protection


By adopting the 1981 Convention on Occupational Safety and Health (No. 155), occupational safety standards are set out in Articles 1 and 2 of Article 1, which apply to all workers in all sectors of the economy and industries. 15 Significant changes have been made to the approach of the last decade in order to prohibit certain risks in certain areas or professions and to overcome certain problems. Convention No. 155 provided the basis for the European Basic Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health adopted in 1989 by the European Union. One of the main features of this legal framework is the introduction of comprehensive comprehensive laws in the field of labor protection and safety. Modify the old law to cover all workers and all risks in the workplace. However, in many countries separate rules have been introduced for very dangerous operations, such as mines and oil and gas production sites, transportation and flights. However, completing the work of the Center for Gender Equality in 2009, the International Labour Conference showed that family and work combinations can apply not only to women, but also to men, therefore women and men, including paternity or parental leave, also have social partners in member countries. Develop a better balance between work and family responsibilities and motivate men to take on these responsibilities. holiday. As explained for the purposes of this report, there are three main determining factors in a country. Protection level; Level of compliance. These three determinants are useful in identifying issues that need to be addressed with proper occupational health and safety in terms of working hours, wages, occupational health and safety, and protection from pregnancy. ILO member states have recently taken measures to strengthen labour protection in terms of three determining factors. The general answer is to expand the circle of previously excluded groups to make occupational safety more complete.


In addition, worker protection has been strengthened in many countries Progress continues in key areas , but not all workers benefit. As explained for the purposes of this report, there are three main determining factors in a country. Protection level; Level of compliance. These three determinants are useful in identifying issues that need to be addressed with proper occupational health and safety in terms of working hours, wages, occupational health and safety, and protection from pregnancy. ILO member states have recently taken measures to strengthen labour protection in terms of three determining factors. The general answer is to expand the circle of previously excluded groups to make occupational safety more complete. In addition, worker protection has been strengthened in many countries.


Towards a more comprehensive and inclusive approach to labour protection


The world of work and the ILO face a fundamental challenge: how to ensure effective labour protection to all workers, including those facing decent work deficits because of inadequate laws, poor law enforcement or the misuse of non-standard contractual arrangement. Building on the conclusions of the Meeting of Experts on this subject matter and on its current response, the ILO should promote a revamped approach to labour protection. Adopting such an integrated approach does not mean acting on all components at the same time; it means being aware of the interdependence among them and the effects of these inter-relationships on workers’ well-being and safety. This revamped approach to labour protection would be part of the ILO’s broader response to combating poverty and inequality, in the context of the end-to-poverty centenary initiative and as part of the ILO contribution :


(a) the establishment of the necessary levels of labour protection and coverage for all workers, irrespective of their employment relationship status and for whom they work;


(b) greater complementarity between labour protection and social protection;


(c) consideration of whether additional measures, including new standards, might be needed to afford workers in non-standard forms of employment adequate protection grassroot level .


(d) greater vigilance by and responsiveness of labour market actors and institutions to changes in the world of work through enhanced knowledge and capacity building.

An integrated approach would ensure that all workers enjoy the necessary levels of protection.



Conclusion

Over the past decades, the working world has become more complex and unpredictable. With the advent of many labour contracts and industrial relations, which are inextricably linked with the diversification and acceleration of production processes, the situation on the global labour market has changed. The standard of living of labour managers coexists with more flexible working conditions and informal working conditions, although at a different level. The distribution of one type of labour relationship depends on the socio-economic and environmental conditions of state regulation. However, the legal trend in occupational safety and health indicates that politicians around the world are required to set and apply labour standards to introduce or expand a legally acceptable minimum wage for previously excluded groups of workers. Minimum wage policies have been used by many governments as a useful tool to combat poverty and inequality and the growth of low-wage labour in developed and developing countries. Effective overall coverage will have the advantage of reducing the burden on social protection levels by creating tension in the Social Security Fund by preventing workers from falling into poverty or being able to work. Indeed, adopting universal safety and health at work and improving social protection will make a significant contribution to poverty .At the same time, the needs and desires of new forms of protection, which adapt to a changing working world and promote innovation in collective bargaining and social dialogue, are evaluated taking into account the interests and requirements of both employers and employees.


By Shahana N

Law Student



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