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The problem of child abuse is not only concerned with one state or a particular place. Most of the countries in the world are having children suffering from the various abuses. The problem of child abuse raises a variety of issues: not only limited to the question that what are the effects and causes of child abuse and the types of child abuse. To eradicate the abuse on the children, there are many laws made by the states and many conventions are taken place by the United Nations Organisations. There are cases that were before the courts of justice to provide the relief to the abused children. All these aspects will be discussed at stretch in the coming chapters in this study.


Molestation of children by parents or others. If the molestation is of a sexual nature, the offender may be guilty of indecent assault or gross indecency with children. It is an offence to take or allow the taking of indecent photographs of a child under the age of 16, to distribute or show such photographs, to advertise that one intends to distribute or show them, or simply to possess them without a legitimate reason. Photographs on the Internet and computers have been held by the Courts to fall within this legislation. (England) (Oxford Law Dictionary, 5th Edn., 2003)”

Deprivation of the right to innocence, child prostitution, child pornography, torture, violence, economic exploitation including child labour, drug abuse, sexual exploitation, and sexual abuse, sale, trafficking, abduction, discrimination, juvenile injustice, deprivation of liberty including any form of detention, imprisonment or placement in custodial settings, disrespect to their views, non-preservation of their identity, non-protection of their privacy, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. (Human Rights).”

Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.

Child abuse is not just physical violence directed at a child. It is any form of maltreatment by an adult, which is violent or threatening for the child. This includes neglect.


The types of abuse were characterized by various researchers in various forms. The researcher of this topic referred to many studies by various researchers and found the classification as specified below are the better way to understand. There are four types of child abuse: -

They are

  1. Physical abuse

  2. Sexual abuse

  3. Neglect

  4. Emotional abuse

  5. Physical abuse - Physical abuse is “any non-accidental physical injury to the child.” “Physical violence against a child executed by a parent or a caretaker.” It includes beating, kicking, striking, scratching, punching, burning, biting, or any other action which could lead to physical injury to the child. The most widely recognized wounds from misuse are marks from hits and kicks. Wounds in unusual places or wounds of various ages may demonstrate maltreatment just as wounds in newborn children. The young kids are the touchiest to brutality and wounds can get serious and cause life‐long results or even be life‐ compromising. Cracks, suffocation endeavors, viciousness against the head, shaking of the kid [Shaken infant syndrome] and a guardian creates or incites manifestations of sickness in a child are altogether instances of such serious sorts of maltreatment against little children. The child physical abuse can be caused even before the child is born which are specifies as below:

  6. Shaken Baby Syndrome: Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is a preventable, extreme type of actual young children misuse coming about because of viciously shaking a newborn child by the shoulders, arms, or legs. SBS may result from both shaking alone or from shaking with sway. SBS isn't only an offence it is a general medical problem. SBS bringing about head injury is the main source of kid misuse passing in the United States. Essentially all casualties of SBS endure genuine wellbeing results and in any event, one of each four infants who are brutally shaken passes on from this type of child abuse.

  7. Munchausen by Proxy syndrome: Initiating clinical disease in a young child or wrongly persuading others that a kid is debilitated. It mirrors a significantly broken connection between parent and kid. The most current writing and logical speculations on this are that it is an appearance of an extraordinary type of relational indifference.

  8. Usage of Drugs, alcohol, cigarette during pregnancy: Liquor use can prompt Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Cigarette use can pre-condition a kid to disease. Medication and liquor use can cause the infant deep-rooted hindrance and injury.

  9. Sexual abuse – Child sexual abuse as defined by WHO, “Child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust, or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. This may include but is not limited to 1. the inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; 2. the exploitative use of a child in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; 3.the exploitative use of children in pornographic performance and materials”.

There are three kinds of sexual offenses against young children: Rape, attack, dissemination or creation or ownership of kid erotic entertainment. Any vaginal or butt-centric intercourse with a child is assault. A child can't lawfully offer to agree to sexual movement. Sexual maltreatment is never a child’s deficiency. Kid sexual maltreatment incorporates a wide scope of practices, including:

  • Rape: vaginal or butt-centric penile infiltration.

  • Oral sex by or to any grown-up.

  • Genital contact with no interruption.

  • Fondling of a child’s bosoms or backside.

  • Indecent presentation.

  • Production, dissemination, or ownership of child erotic entertainment.

  • Sexual Exploitation: Use of a children in prostitution, erotic entertainment.

In most validated instances of child sexual maltreatment, there are no actual manifestations of damage to caution grown-ups. Child sexual maltreatment regularly goes to the consideration of grown-ups when children unveil, albeit just a little level of explicitly mishandled youth uncover because of an assortment of components:

  1. Youth may have been compromised with hurt by the culprit if they tell somebody.

  2. Some youth may expect that different grown-ups won't trust them if they unveil.

  3. Often, youth censure themselves for the maltreatment

  4. In a few cases, youth don't comprehend the action to be destructive and keep up the mystery because sexual issues are typically not examined in their family unit.

Youth influenced by sexual maltreatment may go to the consideration of a grown-up through backhanded signs that something isn't right: age improper sexual language or conduct, evasion of certain nearby relatives or associates, or shirking of specific areas may all be markers that the adolescent has encountered explicitly oppressive lead by a grown-up or peer. Most of the sexual abuse was to the female category.

Neglect: Neglect is an example of disregarding to accommodate a kid's fundamental requirements. It is maltreatment through exclusion; of not accomplishing something bringing about critical mischief or danger of huge damage.

There are four sorts of disregard: actual disregard, clinical disregard, instructive disregard, and enthusiastic disregard.

1. Actual neglect: Failure to give food, climate proper garments, oversight, a protected and clean home.

2. Clinical neglect: Failure to give the fundamental clinical or dental consideration for a kid's condition.

3. Instructive neglect: Failure to select a young kid in school or to give a fundamental custom curriculum. Permitting exorbitant nonappearances from school.

4. Enthusiastic neglect: Failure to offer passionate help, love, and fondness to a child. Introduction of a kid to spousal, pet, or medication and liquor misuse.

Think about disregard when the kid:

  • Is habitually missing from school.

  • Is unnecessarily eager.

  • Begs or takes food or cash.

  • Lacks required clinical or dental consideration, vaccinations, or glasses.

  • Is reliably grimy.

  • Has an extreme stench.

  • Lacks adequate climate suitable dress. Ab

  • Uses liquor or different medications.

  • The apparent absence of management at home.

Inability to flourish is a condition wherein children flop actually to create to their ordinary full hereditary potential. It very well might be brought about by clinical (natural) conditions or parental disregard (inorganic) that keep the child from developing true to form. The reason can be controlled by checking a kid in a clinic setting to check whether they put on weight through standard taking care of timetable.

Emotional abuse – “Emotional abuse is any pattern of behavior that impairs a child's emotional development or sense of self-worth. This may include constant criticism, threats, rejection or withholding love, and support.” Emotional child abuse is abuse which brings about disabled mental development and improvement. 1. It includes words, activities, and indifference. 2. Abusers continually reject, overlook, put down, overwhelm, and censure the victims. 3. This type of misuse may happen with or without actual maltreatment, however, there is frequently an overlap. 4. Examples of passionate kid misuse are obnoxious attack; unnecessary requests on a child’s presentation; punishing a kid for positive, ordinary conduct (grinning, versatility, investigation, vocalization, control of articles); debilitating guardian and baby connection; punishing a kid for exhibiting indications of positive confidence; and punishing a kid for utilizing relational aptitudes required for satisfactory execution in school and friend gatherings. Furthermore, regularly presenting children to family brutality and reluctance or powerlessness to give friendship or incitement to the kid throughout day-by-day care may likewise bring about psychological mistreatment.

Albeit psychological mistreatment can sting however much that actual maltreatment, it very well may be more enthusiastically to recognize because the imprints are left within rather than the outside. To be expected, there exist not many all-around approved proportions of youth psychological mistreatment. Clinicians can utilize an overhauled variant of the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) which targets measures for psychological mistreatment. Parental figures can likewise intently notice a child’s practices and characters. Kids experiencing psychological mistreatment are frequently incredibly faithful to the parent, terrified of being rebuffed on the off chance that they report misuse, or believe that this sort of misuse is a typical lifestyle.

Conduct markers of a genuinely mishandled kid incorporate wrong conduct that is juvenile or more development for the child’s age, emotional social changes (interruption of exercises, sticking or urgently looking for warmth and consideration), forcefulness, uncooperativeness, bedwetting or loss of gut control (after a kid has been prepared), and damaging or standoffish conduct (being continually removed and miserable). Besides, helpless associations with peers, absence of self-assurance, irregular apprehensions for the kid's age (dread of returning home, being disregarded, explicit items), or powerlessness to respond with feeling or build up an enthusiastic bond with others are likewise pointers. Everything being equal, any of the above practices may likewise be found in typical children, yet an adjustment in an example of these practices is a solid marker of psychological mistreatment.

The outcomes of passionate child misuse can be long-term and serious. Many explorations contemplate inferring that psychopathologic manifestations are bound to create in genuinely mishandled kids. These kids may encounter a long-lasting example of wretchedness, alienation, uneasiness, low confidence, wrong or disturbed connections, or an absence of compassion.

During their adolescence, casualties may neglect to flourish or their formative advancement might be stopped. Some may likewise turn out to be inadequately changed genuinely and mentally. As children, they think that it’s hard to trust, partake in and accomplish joy in relational connections, and resolve the intricate emotions left over from their childhoods. As grown-ups, they may experience difficulty perceiving and valuing the necessities and sensations of their kids and genuinely abuse them too.


There are many associating reasons for child abuse and disregard. Circumstances or Characteristics of the victimizer, the kid, and the family may all contribute. As a rule, the victimizer was mishandled as a child. Substance misuse (see chronic drug use and medication misuse) has been distinguished as a critical factor in a developing number of cases. Now and again victimizers don't have the schooling and abilities expected to bring up a kid, along these lines improving the probability of misuse, and giving lacking parental good examples to people in the future. Kids who are poorly, impaired, or in any case apparent as various are bound to be the objectives of misuse. In the family, conjugal dissension, abusive behavior at home, joblessness, and neediness, and social disengagement are on the whole factors that can encourage misuse. Some of the causes are;

  1. Aggressive behavior at home: Kids who are essential for families where there is incessant abusive behavior at home are inclined to turning out to be casualties of misuse themselves. Men who misuse their female accomplices are answerable for mishandling the children at their homes as well.

  2. Liquor and Drug Abuse: Guardians who have a past filled with liquor and medication misuse can be liable for child misuse. Reliance on substance misuse is one of the significant reasons for child misuse and abuse which incorporates actual maltreatment and deliberate disregard. Liquor or medication mishandling guardian is bound to start child maltreatment with children of five years or underneath.

  3. Untreated Mental Illness: - A parent's untreated psychological instability is a typical reason for kid misuse. Hyper melancholy or some other disease of the psyche can turn into a prime reason for the guardians to be inaccessible for the child. A mother may stay removed from her children or in outrageous cases presume that the kid plotting against her. A parent's enduring is regularly the reason for exposing a kid to manhandle.

  4. Absence of Parenting Skills: - Most guardians are normally skilled while thinking about their kids, yet few will be unable to deal with their physical and feelings enough. Numerous guardians would frequently compare restraining kids with manhandling them and will require advising to comprehend the function of a parent in a superior way.

  5. Stress and Lack of Support: - Numerous children face mental abuse when their guardians or guardians are under pressure. Guardians think that it’s hard to manage the feelings of a kid particularly when they face upsetting circumstances. Separations, relationship issues, monetary concerns, and employment-related issues can prompt guardians dispensing maltreatment to their children.

Examples of oppressive conduct may bring about the physical or mental impedance of the kid or even passing. Little kids are particularly defenseless against actual injury, for example, whiplash or shaken newborn child condition coming about because of battery. Mishandled kids are bound to encounter summed up uneasiness, sorrow, delinquency, disgrace and coerce, or self-destructive and maniacal considerations or to participate in the crime, wantonness, and substance misuse.


There are many types of consequences of child abuse. Here the following describes those problems.

  1. Attachment problems: Children and babies presented to disregard and neglect are bound to encounter unreliable or disrupted connection issues with their essential parental figure. Without the security and backing from a guardian, infants and babies may think that it’s hard to confide in others when in trouble, which may prompt relentless encounters of uneasiness or outrage insecure connections adjust the ordinary formative cycle for kids, which can seriously influence a child’s capacity to impart and communicate with others and structure sound connections for the duration of their life.

  2. Physical Health problems: The exposure to one adverse experience will double the odds of children having overall poor physical health at the age of 6 years, and tripled them if children had experienced four or more adverse experiences. A common form of abuse affecting the health of babies is shaken baby syndrome. Health problems resulting from shaken baby syndrome may include brain damage, spinal cord injuries, hearing loss, speech difficulties, and even death.

  3. Psychological and mental health problems: Injury brought about by encounters of children misuse and disregard can affect the creating cerebrum, increasing the danger of mental issues. The broad examination has distinguished a solid connection between misuse/disregard and post horrible pressure issue. Presentation to an unpredictable and ongoing injury can bring about diligent mental issues. Complex injury influences the creating mind and may meddle with a child’s ability to incorporate tactile, enthusiastic, and intellectual data, which may prompt over-receptive reactions in resulting pressure. Emotional well-being issues, for example, depression and uneasiness issues, have reliably been connected with child abuse, especially for adolescents. Commonness paces of significant misery have been demonstrated to be around multiple times higher in youth than more young children. This may also lead to youth suicide and many others.

  4. Developmental or learning problems: Solid affiliations have been made between child abuse and learning troubles/poor academic performance. Misuse and disregard in the early long stretch of life can truly influence the formative limits of babies, particularly in the basic regions of discourse and language. It could not help the child in grasping the things fast.

  5. Behavioural problems: Child abuse may also lead to behavioural problems. Children influenced by disregard will in general be more confined at school contrasted with different gatherings of kids and experience issues making companions. This was characterized by two types of conduct -1. Externalized 2. Internalized. Disregarded kids may likewise show forceful and problematic conduct; be that as it may, externalizing conduct issues are all the more firmly connected with physical and sexual maltreatment or seeing aggressive behavior at home. Improper sexualised conduct is additionally connected with misuse and disregard, and most normally with sexual maltreatment and presentation to profoundly vicious and sexualised conditions.

  6. Alcohol and drug abuse, aggression, violence, and criminal activity: This might also lead to the children involving in the commission of crimes and being part of terrorists’ organizations as such. They might commit dangerous or heinous crimes also. They might be get addicted to alcohol and drugs and that might become the cause of various disorders.


There are many laws and policies or activities that implement for the protection of children in India.


  • Article 15(3) of the constitution gives the state legislatures to make laws in regard to the children welfare or protection.

  • Article 39(f) of the constitution of India is as follows;

Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State: The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing; that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.


  • Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

India's crucial law in managing child in need of care and insurance. It obliges their necessities through consideration, assurance, advancement, treatment, social reintegration, through its kid inviting methodology by tending to issues to the greatest interest of children.

  • Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO), 2012

One of the Indian government's most reformist laws, to battle sexual viciousness against children. POCSO qualifies penetrative rape on a youngster beneath the age of 12 as exasperated penetrative rape, a wrongdoing culpable with a fine and a base term of thorough detainment for a very long time, which can be stretched out to life detainment.


Each youngster has rights, whatever their nationality, sexual orientation, religion, language, capacities or some other status. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, or UNCRC is the only human rights convention that is ratified by many states in the world. It was also accepted by the non-state entities. Except United States all other members of United Nations Organization has accepted the convention. This is the basis for the work done by the UNICEF. It is the most complete assertion of children privileges ever created and is the most broadly The Convention has 54 articles that cover all parts of a child’s life and set out the common, political, monetary, social and social rights that all youngsters wherever are qualified for. It additionally clarifies how grown-ups and governments should cooperate to ensure everything kids can appreciate every one of their privileges.


  2. Ismail M v. State of Kerala

Case Name: Ismail M v. State of Kerala

Citation: AIR 2005 Ker 307, 2005 (3) KLT 1052, 2006 144 STC 476 Ker

Bench: Alexander Thomas, J.


The petitioner and the respondent 1 are married couple and they have a child aged 3 and ½ years who was born to them. The respondent 1 and 2 are friends and they were also batchmates. Respondent 1 and 2 were in unlawful relationship. The petitioner had left his job when he learnt about their relationship. The respondent had moved her habitation which is helpful for her to proceed with the relationship and joined the minor girl in a school. Both the respondents used to take the kid after school hours and made a trip to booked spots at odd occasions and used to play out the sexual demonstrations before the minor girl. 2nd respondent used to embrace and kiss the minor girl. The petitioner came to know about those actions. He filed a complaint before Superintendent of Police but there was no effective action taken by the competent authorities. Later the petitioner filed a suit before the Addl. Sessions Court. The matter was heard by the judge and it was held that the said offence would not be applicable under the provisions of (Section 11 & 7 of the) POCSO Act and further stated that there is no authority conferred on the special court to take a complaint directly. The complaint has been returned for presentation before the proper court. The petitioner filed a revision petition.


1. Whether the acts of the respondent fall within the provisions of POCSO Act i.e., under Section 11 & 7 of the POCSO Act?


It was held by the bench that the acts of the respondent fall under Sections 11 & 7 of the POCSO Act. The order of the Addl. Sessions court was set aside and the petition is allowed.


Sec. 11(i) of the POCSO Act is read as follows:

Sec.11: Sexual harassment: - A person is said to commit sexual harassment upon a child when such person with sexual intent—

(i) utters any word or makes any sound, or makes any gesture or exhibits any object or part of body with the intention that such word or sound shall be heard, or such gesture or object or part of body shall Crl.R.P.291/19be seen by the child; or”

Sec. 7 of the POCSO Act reads as follows:

Sec.7: Sexual Assault: - Whoever, with sexual intent touches the vagina, penis, anus or breast of the child or makes the child touch the vagina, penis, anus or breast of such person or any other person, or does any other act with sexual intent which involves physical contact without penetration is said to commit sexual assault.

  1. Sundareswaran v. Inspector of Police, Puzhal Police Station, Puzhal

Case Name: Sundareswaran v. Inspector of Police, Puzhal Police Station, Puzhal

Citation: Cr. No. 457 of 2009 [2010] 2 MLJ (Crl) 1231.

Bench: K.N. Basha, J.


The victim is a girl who is of 15 years age. She was asserted to have been exposed to persistent rape for over three years by her dad. The victim and the mother of the victim are subjected to mistreatment by her father and they were the silent sufferers of threat, fear, and shame. The Child Welfare Committee, Chennai, came to rescue the victim of inhuman and barbaric sexual assault. A case was against the petitioner/accused by the respondent police for the offences under Section 376 IPC, Section 4 of Women Harassment Act, 1988 and Section 23 of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000. The petitioner was arrested for the offences under Sec. 376 IPC, Sec. 4 of Women Harassment Act, 1988 and Sec. 23 of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, in Crime No. 457 of 2009 on the file of the respondent police, seeks bail.

Petitioners Contentions:

The learned counsel for the petitioners submitted on behalf of the petitioners that the allegations are false implications and he has nothing to do with it.

Respondents Contentions:

The learned government advocate who was appearing on behalf of the respondents contented that the petitioner has heinous crime of rape on her daughter. It was also contended that he was also trying to tampering of the evidence by threatening them.

Issue: Whether the petition has to be allowed or not?

Held: It was held that the petition is dismissed and the respondent is not given bail.


The horrifying crime affirmed to have been submitted by the petitioner is to be managed an iron hand. This is additionally of the considered view that the casualty just as her mother, who has given the grumbling, need security by the police. The arrival of the candidate would hamper the examination and the solicitor may liable to make genuine danger and dread the person in question and her mom bringing about altering the proof. Considering the earnestness and gravity of the offense asserted against the candidate, it isn't alluring to deliver the applicant on bail and in like manner, this appeal is thus excused.

  1. Manilal Dayal Ji & Company and Others v. Competent Authority and Inspector Under Child Labour and Others

Case Name: Manilal Dayal Ji & Company and Others v. Competent Authority and Inspector Under Child Labour and Others

Citation: [2015] 2 LLJ 433

Bench: Hon’ble Mr. Justice Prashant Kumar Mishra

Facts: The petitioners employed Gharkhata worker and got a declaration from every one of the Gharkhata Worker about the subtleties of their relatives including minors and kid under 14 years, there was definitely no control of the solicitors over the undertakings which occurs inside four corners of the place of such Gharkhata Workers. A child drew in by the guardians who turns out to be a Gharkhata Worker or the representative who has no power over Gharkhata Worker can't be considered answerable for abusing the arrangement contained in Section 3 of the Act.

Issues: Whether by virtue of proviso to Section 3 Act 1986, Petitioners can be held guilty of violating Section 3 throwing themselves in net of mischief created under Act?

Held: It was held that those provisions will not apply when the child labour is a Gharkata worker. The writ petitions are allowed.

Reasoning: The stipulation to Section 3, cited above unequivocally announces that the mischief made under the arrangement in the fundamental area isn't relevant to any workshop wherein any process was carried on by the occupier with the guide of his family. There is additionally no debate about the training predominant in Beedi producing that Gharkhata Workers are typically utilized by the Beedi makers. At times, the place of such Gharkhata Worker has been blessed to receive be important for foundation of Beedi produce. The court has given the below conclusions.

In view of the judgment of the Supreme Court in the matter of M.C. Mehta v. State of T. N. and Others (supra) the Inspector and the competent authority were entitled to draw the proceedings against the petitioners for violation of Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.

The notification dated 19/03/1997 appointing the member of Survey Team appointed by the Collectors as Inspectors under the Act 1986 does not suffer from vice of excessive delegation nor the competency of the Inspectors so appointed suffers from any illegality.

The petitioners who are Beedi manufacturers having employed Gharkhata Workers and the said Gharkhata Workers having engaged their minor sons/daughters/family members, below the age of 14 years for rolling Beedis, they are protected under the proviso to Section 3 of the Act and as such the provisions of the Act would not apply in cases where the concerned child labour was a family member of the Gharkhata Workers.


The researcher