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Brief Study of Languages specified in Schedule 8 of Indian Constitution


Section A


Introduction

India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic &Republic with a parliamentary system of government; assuring its citizens of justice, equality and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them. The constitution of India was adopted by the Constitutional Assembly on November 26, 1949 and was inaugurated on January26, 1950.The words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment (mini constitution). India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on26 January each year as Republic Day.

As all of us know, India has a completely great and wide culture, and an extended records as well. For all of these items and the customs that had been maintained over the years, nowadays the Indian Constitution acknowledges 22, so-called, countrywide languages. All those within the Eighth Schedule of the constitution, which incorporate two official languages. One have to be there for the union, i.e. one is compulsorily English and any other from the 22 recognised languages or compulsorily Hindi.

What is Constitution of India?

The constitution of India is the superb regulation of India. It lays down the framework defining essential political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and responsibilities of government institutions, and units out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the responsibilities of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 118 amendments. Besides the Hindi version, there may be an official English translation. DR. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is broadly referred to as the father of the Indian Constitution.


Eighth Schedule of Indian Constitution

In Indian Constitution, we've overall 12 schedules; each schedule deals with exclusive topics like "State and Territory‟, "Salary‟ etc. So, the eighth Schedule deals with various languages. At present eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution includes a listing of twenty-two languages (at the beginning 14 languages). If new language observed and need to be brought in schedule 8th of constitution, the government will amend the existing act and add to the Constitution of India. At the time the constitution was passed, inclusion on this listing supposed to means that language was entitled to representation at the Official Language Commission, and that the language could be one of the bases that might be drawn upon to enhance Hindi, the official language of the Parliament of India.

Section B

List of schedule Languages:

The VIII schedule of the constitution of India offers with the official languages and language policies of India. It defines and delimits the fame of Hindi and different Indian languages. As per Articles 344(1) and 351 of the Indian Constitution, the eighth schedule includes the recognition of the following 22 languages:

  1. Assamese

  2. Bengali

  3. Bodo

  4. Dogri

  5. Gujarati

  6. Hindi

  7. Kannada

  8. Kashmiri

  9. Konkani

  10. Maithili

  11. Malayalam

  12. Meitei (Manipuri)

  13. Marathi

  14. Nepali

  15. Odia

  16. Punjabi

  17. Sanskrit

  18. Santhali

  19. Sindhi

  20. Tamil

  21. Telugu

  22. Urdu


Out of 22 Languages,10 languages belong to the Indo-Aryan people, four languages belong to the Dravidians and Manipuri belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family.

Official status of Languages in India

In article343, the chapter on language of the union says “Official language of the union will be Hindi in Devnagri Script. The kinds of numerals will be the global shape of the Indian Numerals.

Hindi is the most spoken language in India, approximately around forty percentage of Indians speak Hindi. And no different language is spoken by Indians greater than 10% of the populace of India. English, broadly utilized in commercial enterprise and politics, become retained for reputable use for the benefit of non-Hindi speakers, specifically in Tamil Nādu and West Bengal. The Eighth Schedule to the Indian constitution lists 22 languages that the Government of India has the duty to develop. Neither the Constitution of India, nor any Indian regulation recognizes any language as the national language of the country.

The Legal framework in India governing using languages for reliable motive presently consists of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages Rules, 1976, and other state laws, in addition to regulations and guidelines made through the significant authorities and the states. Hindi became the official language of the union with impact from January 26, 1965 as provided in the official language act 1963. In official language act 1967 it is mentioned that English will be used as a medium of communication between centre and state when state has not adopted Hindi as their official Language.


Details of all Schedule languages of India are as follows:

This section represents all the languages which belongs to Indo-Aryan people in VIII Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

  1. Indo-Aryan Language Family

  2. Assamese:

It is an Indo-Aryan language and the official language of Assam. More than 57% of the populace of Assamese speaks in Assamese language. This language has evolved as a literary language from the thirteenth century.


Bengali:

It is one of the main Indo-Aryan language and is the respectable language of West Bengal. It is one of the popular languages of India. Bengali emerged as a separate language around 1000 A.D.