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Indian law implies a case for the safeguards of public interest. It is litigation presented in an official courtroom, not by the burdened party but rather by the actual court or by some other private party. Public Interest Litigation is the force given to the general society by courts through legal activism. Such cases may happen when the victim of the case doesn't have the major evidence or assets to begin the case or his opportunity to move court has been smothered or infringed upon. The court would itself be able to take cognizance of the matter and continue Suo moto or cases can start on the appeal of any open person.

In basic words, implies, suit documented in a courtroom, for the safeguard of Public Interest, like contamination, Terrorism, Road wellbeing, constructional hazards and so on. Public interest prosecution isn't characterized in any rule or any demonstration. The primary goal of Public Interest is that different region where a Public interest suit can be recorded. It has been discussed and concluded by judges to think about the goal of the public.

For example ;

- Violation of essential basic liberties of poor people

- Compel metropolitan specialists to play out a public obligation.

- Violation of strict rights or other essential thing rights.

- Content or lead of government strategy.


Public Interest Litigation is intended and initiated for authorization of essential and other legitimate or legal privileges of individuals who are poor, feeble, uninformed of lawful redressal framework in the country or any case in a disadvantageous situation, because of their social or monetary condition. Such prosecution can be started uniquely for redressal of a public physical issue, requirement of a public obligation. It is essential that the appeal isn't filed by the petitioner for individual profit or private intention or other unessential thought and PIL should be documented for genuine openly interest.


A Public Interest Litigation can be filed against a State/Central Govt., Municipal Authorities, and no private gathering. The meaning of State is equivalent to given under Article 12 of the Constitution, Accordingly the authorities determined under Art.12 are –

  1. The Government and Parliament of India

  2. The Government and Legislature of every one of the States

  3. All nearby specialists

  4. Other specialists inside the region of India or under the Government of India.

This incorporates the Government, Parliament of India, the Government and the Legislature of every one of the States and all nearby or different specialists inside the domain of India. As per Art.12, the term State incorporates the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislatures of every one of the States and all neighbourhood or different authorities inside the domain of India or under the control of Government of India.


Lalita Kumari v. Govt. of U.P. & Ors., 2013, was delivered by a Five-Judge Constitution Bench judges named, P Sathasivam, B.S. Chauhan, Ranjana Prakash Desai, Ranjan Gogoi and S.A. Bobde of the Honourable Supreme Court on 12th November 2013. In the case, the appellant was Lalita Kumari who had appealed against the Government of UP through a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution. Lalita Kumari (minor) through her father for the filing of a writ petition of Habeas Corpus for the protection of his daughter who has been kidnapped. The issue was aroused in the case was; Whether is it compulsory for the police officer to register an FIR upon receiving any information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence under section 154 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 or the police officer has the power to conduct a preliminary inquiry to test the accuracy of such information before registering the case.

(I) Registration of FIR is required under Section 154 of the code of criminal methodology if the data commission of a cognizable offence and no fundamental inquiry is permissible in such a circumstance.

(ii) If the data received for the FIR demonstrates and guarantees the need for an inquiry, a fundamental request might be led distinctly to determine whether the cognizable offence is revealed or not.

(iii) If the request reveals the commission of a cognizable offence, the FIR should be enlisted. In situations where primer request closes in shutting the grievance, a duplicate of the section of such conclusion should be provided to the main source forthwith and not later than a multi-week. It should discover the reasons to sum things up for shutting the grievance and not continuing further investigation.

(iv) The police can't maintain a strategic distance from his obligation of registering the offence if a cognizable offence is revealed. actions need to be taken against failing officials who don't enlist the FIR if data got by him uncover a cognizable offence.

(v) The extent of fundamental request isn't to check the accuracy or in any case of the data

gotten yet just to determine whether the data uncovers any cognizable offence.

(vi) As to what exactly type and in which cases starter request is to be led will rely upon the realities and conditions of each case. The class of cases in which primer request might be made

areas under:

(a) Matrimonial debates/family questions

(b)Commercial offences

(c) Medical carelessness cases

(d)Corruption cases

(e) Cases where there is a strange postponement in starting criminal arraignment, for instance, over 3 months delay in revealing the matter without acceptably clarifying the explanations behind the delay. The previously mentioned are just outlines and not thorough of all conditions which may warrant fundamental request.


Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India and Others AIR 1984 SC 802–The Supreme Court ordered to end child work. The orders ultimately prompted the establishment of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986.

M. C. Mehta and Another v. Association of India and Others AIR 1987 SC 1086–This PIL was recorded after the oleum gas leak from Shriram Food and Fertilizers Ltd. complex at Delhi. The Court set out the idea of absolute liability or obligation.

Sunil Batra v. Delhi Administration and Others AIR 1978 SC 1675–Case was as for changes identified with prisoner's privileges. There is no absolute hardship of a detainee's privileges of life and freedom. Court went further into the option to be shielded from torment and the right to quick execution.

Hussainara Khatoon and Others v. Home Secretary, State of Bihar, Patna AIR 1979 SC 1369–Free legitimate administrations to poor people and the destitute is a fundamental component of any 'reasonable fair and just' procedure. A detainee needs to look for his freedom through the court's cycle, and along these lines, ought to have legitimate administrations accessible to him.

Individuals' Union for Democratic Rights and Others v. Association of India and Others (1982) 3 SCC 235–The extent of Article 23 is wide and limitless and strikes at "traffic in individuals" and "poor person and different types of forced work" any place they are found. The word 'power' should subsequently be interpreted to incorporate physical or legal power as well as power emerging from the impulse of monetary conditions which leaves no selection of options in opposite to an individual in need, and constrains him to give work or administration even though the compensation got for it is not exactly the lowest pay i.e., minimum wage permitted by law.

Sheela Barse v. Province of Maharashtra AIR 1983 SC 378–The term 'life' in Article 21 covers the day-to-day environments and conditions of the prisoners, living in the prisons. The detainees are additionally qualified to serve the ensures gave in the Article subject to reason capable limitations.

Dr Upendra Baxi (I) v. Province of Uttar Pradesh and Another 1983 (2) SCC 308 – Case concerning brutal conditions which were pervasive in Agra Protective Home for Women. The court heard the appeal on various days and gave significant orders using which the day to day living conditions of the prisoners was essentially improved in the Home.

Kharak Singh v State of UP AIR 1963 SC 1295–Personal freedom is what is the build-up after taking out the opportunity of articulation under Article 19. Right to protection isn't ensured under Article 21.

Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation AIR 1986 SC 180–Supreme Court has held that the privilege to work is remembered for the privilege to daily routine because no individual can experience without the methods for living for example the business methods. This is the road merchants' case.

Residents for Democracy v. Territory of Assam and Others (1995) 3 SCC 743–Handcuffing and fastening in broad daylight will be evaded as violative of human respect inside and without jail.

M. C. Mehta v. Association of India (1997) 2 SCC 353-(Taj Trapezium Case)- SC requested unequivocal shutting down of all block situated inside 20 km range of Taj and in the Taj Trapezium Area. This case additionally extended the idea of climate as including public legacy and extended extension under Article 32 since it said even outsiders reserve a privilege to make the most of our public legacy and accordingly, their privileges should be secured.

D. K. Basu v. Province of West Bengal (1997) 1 SCC 416–The Supreme Court set down explicit rules that needed to be followed while making captures.

Avinash Mehrotra v. Association of India and Others (2009) 6 SCC 398-the Supreme Court of India discussed the privilege to training as comprehensive of the privilege to the arrangement of a protected climate and environment in schools and forced a commitment on schools to follow certain fire wellbeing safeguards which were definite in the judgment.

Vishaka and Others v. Territory of Rajasthan and Others (1997) 6 SCC 241–The Court set down rules and standards and norms to stop the sexual harassments of working ladies. The judgment prompted sanctioning of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013.

M.C. Mehta v. Association of India and Others (1988) 1 SCC 471–(Ganga Water Pollution Case)- Despite adequate arrangements under the water act, the Kanpur Mahapalika didn't find a way to forestall contamination. SC gave headings to it for the equivalent. Held privileges of individuals dwelling close to Ganga should be ensured against contamination.

Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum v. Association of India and Others AIR 1996 SC 2715–the Court talked about the idea of feasible advancement as iterated in the Stockholm Declaration and Rio Declaration. Expressed it is a piece of global standard law. Stressed the need to offset improvement with environmental concerns. Likewise, decided that Polluter Pays and Precautionary Principle are a piece of the rule that everyone must follow.

Re. Commotion Pollution AIR 2005 SC 3136–Freedom from clamour contamination is a piece of the privilege to life under Article 21 of the Constitution.

Vineet Narain and Others v. Association of India and Another AIR 1998 SC 889–This case concerns the Hawala outrage in India, which uncovered conceivable pay off instalments to a few high-positioning Indian legislators and civil servants from a financing source connected to suspected fear mongers. The Court set down rules to guarantee freedom and independence of the CBI and requested that the CBI be put under the management of the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), an autonomous administrative office planned to be liberated from chief control or impedance.

Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action v. Association of India and Others (1996) 5 SCC 281–Bicchri Case-Case by an NGO for the inhabitants of Bicchri town against the synthetic mechanical plants delivering poisonous effluents. The government had not made a vital move to ensure the privileges of residents to a sound climate under Article 21, and subsequently, it falls upon the Supreme Court to mediate under Article 32. Forced exacting and total risk on modern plants, and gave different orders.

Province of M.P. v. Narmada Bachao Andolan (2011) 7 SCC 639–The PIL was concerning resettlement and recovery of individuals dislodged as a result of the development of Sardar Sarovar Dam. The court acquainted an instrument with a screen for the advancement of resettlement pari passu with the raising of the stature of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA) in each gathering state.


The concept of PIL was started in the 1980s. It was taken from the American Jurisprudence. It is nowhere defined in any law. The main objective behind this law is to secure Public Interest or right to people, free legal aid, speedy trial and prisoners’ rights were also discussed. In PIL cases, the most difficult question for the court is to measure the seriousness of the petitioner and to notice whether the petitioner is the victim or assaulter. Public Interest Litigation must be accompanied by adequate judicial control and should avoid the illegal form.

In Article 39A, Justice Krishna Iyer added free legal aid and equal justice. backward class people to come with the issues and fight for themselves. The honourable Supreme Court stated that if citizens write with a problem on a postcard and send it to the police station it will also be considered as a Public Interest Litigation. There are drawbacks also for the same from the 2 decades fake PILs have also been submitted by the people and it amounts to fine.


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