DR.B.R.AMBEDKAR AND SOCIAL JUSTICE
"A delay in justice,is injustice"
Every society from time immemorial has been making its best efforts to ensure happiness to each of its members by fullfilling their needs and protecting them from abuse and exploitations. The main aim of the society is to maintain social justice within its borders. Social justice is the spirit of Indian Constitution. It is the duty of the state to maintain social order for all the citizens through legal system which promotes justice on the basis of equal opportunities to all subjects of the nation. Ambedkar the name itself means that 'fighter for social justice' . He had been the victim of injustice and inhuman treatment at the hands of Hindu religion . This article makes an attempt to explore the ideas of Ambedkar. It focuses on the Ambedkar's struggles on being a dalit and how he uplifted the untouchables.
AMBEDKAR AND SOCIAL JUSTICE:
Ambedkar's time denied equality to the downtroddens by granting special privileges to Brahmins and other high castes. Shudas were denied of education, own property and protect them. They don't even have the right to worship.,read, write,etc.. In his era, the untouchables were socially degraded, religiously refused,and they were excluded from cultural and educational opportunities and deprived of all human rights. In India many leaders fought for social justice but only few leader's successfully communicated their ideas to the Society for the welfare of downtrodden particularly Ambedkar fought for the dalit rights,women's rights, backward castes,minorities. He was the one of the most educated among the Indian politicians with more degrees and wrote many books to bring awareness to the society . The two among them is 1) The untouchables (1948) 2) Who were the shrudas?(1947). Why people prefer justice to injustice? Because justice is related to wisdom, virtues and benevolence. It is not easy to make clear idea about social justice. It has been viewed by many authors on different terms. According to Plato, "Justice is the virtue of the soul, justice is good ,because it is indispensable". According to Thrasymachus-justice is an interest of the strong. The concept of social justice is vast. It came to light during french revolution of 1789. The main idea of the social justice is the demand of the oppressed cannot be ignored. The question of merits deserves attention. Social justice was drawn from USA . The 3rd president of America during his 2nd electoral speech he said that justice is protecting the people from tyranny from of the government. Social justice is the way of life which recognises liberty,equality,and fraternity as the principles of life. It abhore the caste barriers between man and man and demands respect to all citizens from everyone . It wants to bring brotherly relation of a citizen with every other citizen in our society. Social justice refers to the destruction in inequalities in race,sex,power, position, wealth and brings about equal distributions of community. Simply defined as the balance between social right and social control. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar who had been the victim of injustice realized that only social justice could make the downtrodden the respectable human brings in this country. In 1918 south borough commission for franchise came to India interviewed B.R.Ambedkar he expressed that dalits need separate electorates and reserved seats for depressed class. Dalits have an issues like entering to temples and rights to participate in festivals. They face a lot of struggles and attacks from Hindu caste system. They have little access to temples and kids made to sit separately in schools.
The dalits were denied of political liberties also. No separate electorates, no franchise etc.. Ambedkar believed"ONE MAN ONE VALUE" which means the basic need of each person is satisfied with freedom and dignity. According to him the state socialism is the state must meet the demand of poor( Weaker sections). A common distribution of (output) resources among the different people without any distinction of castes. According to him the political equality lies in the poor masses become educate and be aware of their rights and duties. The economic equality lies in the equality of opportunity. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar being a philanthropic social reformer was moved with low status of women in society. He chooses his reform approach only after realising the status of women. In his opinion, hindu women were tied up with superstitious beliefs. In other words women in India had remained the matters of joy and source of amusement. She was misused by men guest to serve their evil ends. She has been used just like a machine for procreation. By providing 'Hindu code bill' the hindu and Muslim women got some social status. The dalits were used to do occupations such as cultivate the land, mend the shoes,wash the clothes and clean the toilets. They are frequently denied the accessibility to eat,smokes and even seat with the members of upper caste. They are often forced to use separate wells from those maintained for others because of these discriminations Ambekar created and given several articles in the Indian Constitution to minimise the differences among the caste people. Articles such as, Art19(1)(a) of Indian Constitution guarantees right to freedom of speech and expression to all of its citizens, Article 23 and 24 provide protection against exploitation, chapter 4 contains article 36 to 51 which are the directive principles of state policy which promotes and protects the justice in-political, social and economic. According to B.R.Ambedkar social justice is insisting justice to all to create equalitarian society through constitution making. He desired to create and dreamt of India where there would be no discrimination between man and man and no exploitation,no unsociability and no degradation of downtrodden. His name was written in golden letters in history of India as a creator of social justice. He is not only builder of constitution and man of age but also creator of social justice and betterment of downtrodden. Dalits,a modern term for untouchables in India are under privileged. This pitable conditions were addressed by him and fought for their development. His contribution for India cannot be forgotten.
The constitution prepared by him provides Constitutional guarantees and protection of civil liberties for all of Indian citizens. He brought adult franchise to dalits which gave shape to sovereign democracy. His name become synonymous to justice. He said that in constitution of free India all citizens have to be given social,political and economic equalities. In the true sense of word he gave anticaste aim. He spent his whole life for the betterment of poor,exploited untouchables and troubled class. So he finds honoured and prominent place in the pantheon of most illustrioud builders of modern India. His just Society is based on three principles- liberty, equality and fraternity. All humans are equal by birth but some people created caste system based on occupations which results in evil practices such as untouchability etc.. India has been implementing the social justice through the reservation system. There were certain class people of the society were denied right to livelihood and education etc.. These issues were recognised later by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar- the great social reformer. His leadership provided a fresh path for the development of the scheduled caste(weaker sections) and his whole life was spent for the upliftment of untouchables. Ambedkar aimed to create a just society and casteless society. He wanted justice for Weaker sections of the society by making provisions in the constitution. The permeable of the Constitution of India ,since it's inception on 26th January,1950 has been invoking the spirit of India's people of all castes,creeds and communities to secure to all its citizens:
"Justice, social, economy and polity;
Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
Equality of status and of opportunity;and promote among
them all fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the
Unity of the Nation;...."
Ambedkar belonging to 'MAHAR' caste fought for the justice of untouchables. His views can be summarised as:
"If you ask me, my ideal would be the society based on liberty, equality and fraternity"
This study concludes that social justice is based on equal rights and human dignity through legal framework. Ambedkar did not encourage caste system because it generates inhuman practice among the communities. His ideas supported for the sustainable development of dalit through legal and constitutional provision and being dalit he recognised them for fighting for fundamental rights. He believed law is the powerful weapon to fight against discrimination. His notion of social justice is to accomplish just society within the framework of constitutional and legal methods.
" The disease of caste akin to cancer and preached the gospel that it can't be cured just by antibiotics. It will require a reform-cancer cells need to be removed to get it cured."
" I like the religion which teaches Liberty, Equality and Fraternity".
INSTITUTION : Dr.B.R.AMBEDKAR GOVERNMENT LAW COLLEGE,PUDHUPAKKAM,CHENNAI