Feminist criminology: the rising of the branch
When a crime is committed it infringes the directions and principle upheld by general public even by once in a while for which discipline is recommended by law. Individuals are dependent to work according to the rules made by law. And for a committed crime there is always a provision of punishment which is used when anybody does some crime. As we know a woman is an important part of society and they are considered as nurturers, because they play many roles like a wife, as a mother as a daughter and take care of their house. And a woman can commit a crime, it was beyond the imagination of traditional criminologists and the field of criminology excluded woman from its studies. Now the point is that, what is criminology, criminology is the study of crime and study of criminal justice, but in the feminist school of criminology, the main theory of criminology is centered towards the male subject, validity and that is focused on male victimized and according to the CRPC, the crime is divided into two heads (1) cognizable (2) non-cognizable
Criminality amongst woman
There are major issues that stimulates the female criminology which is viewed as critical dangerous to the general public. Now a days in the present society criminals and crime are like a centre of attention. As the rates of crimes are increasing day by day and in India, it has been considered a male centric behaviour. But now a days not only the man but even women also fall in this category. And in today’s life a woman also suffers from a lot of problems, frustrations, tensions in the today’s time because of which can do the crimes and woman moves t criminality. They are indulged in the crimes. As the social norms are changing per day then a change is coming in the society.
Often, in the present society criminality amongst woman has become a crucial problem because its impact on family, upbringing the children and the overall fabric of society. When topic of crime has recently developed into broad full of research in the field of social work, sociology and law.
In older time, there was no more focus on the criminal behaviour of a woman, it was neglected.
The historical revels the fact that the in the earlier time a woman was considered the foundation stone of the family in particular as well as society in general. as the civilized started, woman have been as preserves of social norms, traditions, customs, morality and family cohesiveness. The standard of woman is of very pride in every religion but according to the researchers it is found that now a says woman are also involved in doing crimes they, their criminality rates have been increasing even a woman is supposed to be the foundation of a house but as the modern time is coming, more woman are involving in crimes. It is always seen that women are involved in theft, robbery, kidnapping, dacoity, abduction, chain snatching, cheating and even murder too. Some cases can be seen that nowadays woman are misusing the rights which are given to them for their protection. The laws which are made for the safety of a woman but they are misused on many bases which is also a crime.
History of criminality amongst woman
In the earlier period, women were also criminals but not very big, but it cannot be said that in earlier time women did not commit any crime. In historical time there was no more attention on the crimes of woman but according to the research this thing has come forward that, crimes by women are increasing with the higher rates than they were before.
In today’s time woman always participated in various aspects of social life including academic, scientific, cultural and other productive and non-productive activities. As the participation of woman is growing in all different fields it might be the contributing factors for the increase in the crime rates among woman.
Female criminality in India
In India the social environment also gives a contribution to the making of women criminals. In India the discrimination happens within the society, discrimination exists from birth until death the in the society.
Researcher told that, women are increasingly going in mainstream of the society, their share in crime is reflected by the available date in India and elsewhere is also on the rise. Female criminality has resulted in diverse socio-economic cultural and environmental factors resultant of rapid westernization and urbanization. Nowadays this can be taken into attention that days this can be taken into attention as female crime rate is increasing and drawing the attention of sociologists, criminologist both at national and international same. It even doesn’t give a strong blow to our social and cultural heritage but also affects the social structure of Indian society. Women are even considered as turning crime as a pervasion of feminine role whether their causes are biological, psychological. Under the biological viewpoint, Caesar Lombroso contribution is considered as the foundation of the scientific study on female crimes. It was stated that female criminals are more terrible than the male criminals because cruelty by a female was much refined and diabolic than men. The thought of Lombroso was that shared many qualities with children and they were morally deficient and their lack of intelligence was the reason of their relatively small participation in crime Ferrero and Lombroso postulated a theory that was based on a belief that all individuals displaying antisocial behaviour were biological throwbacks.
It was considered that the born female is to have the criminal qualities of men and the worst qualities of a woman. So, it is felt that, Indian women are inclined to crime more because of social or economic deprivation than being biological throwbacks. Now, under the psychological viewpoint women who are not passive and contrast with their traditional role as a mother and wives are maladjusted. Maladjusted women fail or refuse to internality the values associated with the role in the society. The woman convicts display emotional instability, insecurity, rejection and frustration. They have faced many situations and would have encountered harsh living conditions, disappointment in love and a large number of unfortunate experiences, which generals made it difficult for them to face the realities of life. When stress gets higher or woman on average than for man, primarily due to belief opportunities, and fir conflicting message of motherhood verses work. Woman whose status is not so good and they experience higher stress. Woman many times afraid to express anger because it could alienate those around them. So, they supposed anger and most of the women were coped by changing anger to guilt, failure and sadness.
Woman when expresses peaks of stress are like that the men to explode with episodes of extreme uncontrolled violence. When situation become over and with poor coping skills and the over controlled personality to result in violence. And the phycological viewpoint is applicable to Indian scenario as them are several crimes committed because of depression and frustration.
Nowadays it is seen that feminist critique of the 150 years has managed to changed the way in which woman are viewed. No nowadays woman are more capable too, there is no doubt in this fact. All the management of the families are done by females only. But because of increasing the burden in this modern time, females are also changing with the time and their insolvent is increasing in crime (1) the marginal nature of women (2) the discrimination done between them, we can sometimes hear about the cases where at some workplaces a woman is not given proper salary in comparison of a male or another particular group or discrimination could also take place in families too many times it is seen that, discrimination occurs in this modern time too. Even the time has changed but it always happens in many societies sometimes on the basis of gender or some other preferences, and the next is (3) In today’s life, lifestyles are becoming very complex (4) As impact of media is increasing day by day this is also a one of a reason.
Now, not only males but a female has a very big part of contribution in committing crimes in this time. As women are given more liberty, they can explore themselves with their knowledge and ability. Crimes are increasing per day so as a result the masculinization of women, their rates of criminality for both property and violent offence are increasing as well. Now, we can see that in comparison of old time the situation is improving day by day that is resulting into there are more explore on everything in every area. Woman could be very educated in future if she is very skilled and more educated and she can be economically independent in future. But if they are given equality in every sector then she could feel less burden on herself and this may be a possibility that the number of crime rate could be decreased according to the time. So, the criminology of feminist helps to put gender space into prospective and also shows that societal acceptance of gender equality eliminates blind spots. And the punishment for the criminology must be some for all the genders that could improve the situation and number of crimes increasing per day because of women may be reduced in number.
Global rises in female violence
Male even dominate crime statics as offenders and prisoners a body of international and national trend data points to a consistent narrowing a gender gap like US, Canada, UK and Australia. According to a data in US, from the year 2000 to 2009 it showed that there were 18% increase in arrests compared to just a 0.2%, increase for similarity aged male (which was the data protected by US. Department of justice of 2010.) it also came out that arrest of female under age of 18 for disorderly conduct decreased by 8% while the arrest of males in this age group decreased by 8% one the same time frame.
The case of a feminist of female violence feminism in the early time and even still wrongly held responsible for the recorded rises rates of female crime and violence in popular culture. So, accordingly the rebuts of rising rates of female crime and violence have tended to be meet with widespread from feminist scholars. Even the female violence challenges deeply into assumptions held by feminists, lawyers, criminologists, media concentrators, policy makers and parents. And the theory of criminologists has a long history of essentially violence as a capacity associated primarily with bags, lacking the capacity for female sex to participate in the inflict violence. The context in which violence occurs may have gendered dimensions- abandoning essentialists theorists.
There is a key achievement of feminist criminology has been to direct critical attention to the fact that men’s violence for outweighs that for which women and girls are responsible. Now the analysis has to be intersectional and not privilege gender alone. Now the fact has come out that the concerned authorities, serve to motivate a constant effort to overcome practical difficulties in how the rules and measures are implemented, as it would lead to common goal of improving outcomes for women prisoners, their children and their communities. While the court decides the cases relating to woman crime it should have a look on the reason why it was done by them. The injustice on women has been done by the society to a woman like pardah system, sati, youngster marriage and many more. Women in the earlier time were not allowed to read holy books, they were not given expansion for the governmental issues and for implementation of law. Now the ecological and financial elements are given significance for clarifying female criminality. So, female criminality uncovers that woman criminals contribute a numerically little extent than that of male offenders. It showed that there is an upward pattern in the quantity of crimes carried out by ladies.