MEDIATION-a method of ADR

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) provides an alternate option to settle disputes, other than traditional mechanisms like courts. One of the forms of ADR mechanism is Mediation, where a neutral third party called mediator, endeavors two parties to settle a dispute.

Mediation is a non-binding process, where a neutral third party called Mediator assists disputed parties to try to reach a settlement agreement, which is acceptable to all the parties involved. The process is voluntary, consented, and informal and the resolution’s outcome would be reached by the parties together.

We can find mediation mentioned in Vedic times, used in Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Buddhism. It is relevant at present due to the unprecedented docket explosion, as about 100 million are waiting for Justice, while 30 million cases are pending in the courts.

MEDIATION was defined as-

Settlement by ‘Mediation’ means the process by which a mediator appointed by parties or by the Court, as the case may be, mediates the dispute between the parties to the suit by the application of the provisions of the Mediation Rules, 2003 in Part II, and in particular, by facilitating discussion between parties directly or by communicating with each other through the mediator, by assisting parties in identifying issues, reducing misunderstandings, clarifying priorities, exploring areas of compromise, generating options in an attempt to solve the dispute and emphasizing1 that it is the parties own responsibility for making decisions which affect them.2

The process of Mediation is a step-by-step process, which includes Introduction, Understanding the problem, deeply understands the interests and needs of the parties, defining the Problem, Creating and Evaluation options to try to settle the dispute.


Supreme Court in 1996 invited the USA to participate in a national Assessment of backlog in civil cases under the leadership of Justice A.H. Ahmadi, which realization of the formation of ADR in India.

Although the procedural reforms suggested were incorporated, they lacked implementation. So Justice M. Jagannadha Rao’s committee was constituted. Salem Advocate Bar Association, Tamil Nadu v. Union of India (2005), 3 where the importance of reference of court matters for mediation, conciliation, and arbitration was held, was based on the report submitted by this committee. The committee formulated the Civil Procedure ADR Rules and Mediation Rules, 2003 for providing guidelines for conducting mediation proceedings.

Some of Mediation institutions in India are Mediation Legal Education and Development (AMLEAD), Ahmedabad Mediation Centre, The Chennai Mediation Centre, Delhi High Court Mediation and Conciliation Centre and Institute for the Study and Development of Legal Systems (ISDLS).


The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908

Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1999, amended section 89 of the CPC whereby mediation was envisaged as one of the modes of settlement of disputes on the recommendations of the Law Commission of India and also the Justice Malimath Committee.

Order X Rules 1A, 1B, and 1C were introduced in 1999 and provides that the court shall direct the parties to choose for either mode of settlement in Section 89.

Order XXIII deals with a compromise suit and declares that such settlement will be recorded and a decree will be passed.

Order XXXIIA states that the court will assist parties to arrive at a settlement in each suit regarding family matters.

Order XXVII and XXXIIA suggest that the court will assist parties to arrive at a settlement in every suit involving a dispute with the government or dispute regarding family matters respectively.


Part III of the Act deals with conciliation that uses aspects of mediation. Section 74 confers upon the settlement agreement the status and effect of an arbitral award which is enforceable as a decree.


The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and also The Special Marriage Act, 1954 provide that before the proceedings for any relief the court will endeavor to bring about reconciliation.

The Family Courts Act, 1984 in its preamble itself talks concerning the settlement.

In B.S. Krishnamurthy v. B.S. Nagaraj (2010),4 the Supreme Court speaking through Justice Markandey Katju emphasized the need for lawyers to advise their clients to try mediation, especially where family relationships are involved.

Commercial Courts Act 2015

Under this Act, the parties have to go for a mandatory pre-institution mediation before instituting the suit.


The Supreme court in Afcons Infrastructure Ltd v. Cherian Varkey Construction

Co. (P) Ltd5 laid out a list of cases that can be mediated. They can be Cases relating to Trade, commerce, and contract; Specific performance, Tortious liability, Consumer disputes and disputes arising between Suppliers and customers, Bankers and customers, Developers/builders and customers, Landlords and tenants, Licensor and licensee, Insurer and insured.6

Cases arising from strained or soured relationships, which have to be continued despite differences between them like Disputes relating to matrimonial causes, partition/division among family members, a partnership among partners, and Disputes between neighbors, employers, and employees, among members of societies/associations, can also be mediated.

The Supreme Court has also provided an “excluded category” where there is no need to refer a matter to an ADR process like Representative suits, Disputes relation to election to public offices, Suits for grant of probate or letters of administration, cases involving fraud, fabrication of documents, forgery, impersonation, coercion, etc., claims against minors, mentally challenged and suits for declaration of title against the government, cases involving the prosecution of criminal offenses and constitutional matters.


Mediator has to make the parties understand that they will be solely responsible for the settlement, and he just proposes options for settlement but not imposing, by assisting the parties of the dispute to communicate, identifying the deferential perspective, and finding common ground between the parties.7

The role of the mediator is just limited to the facilitation of the proceedings and he has to make the parties understand at the beginning itself, that there is no warranty that these proceedings will end with a settlement agreement.8

The Mediator can use some techniques for effective communication between the parties during the proceedings like establishing tone, Active listening and changing the Messenger, etc.


The procedure for the appointment of the meditator is that parties can mutually decide upon the sole mediator. Any person can be appointed as a mediator as long as he doesn’t suffer from disqualifications prescribed under Rule 5 of Civil Procedure Mediation rules, 2003. Each party can nominate a person if they cannot agree on a sole mediator. Then those nominees will elect a sole mediator and if that can’t be done, a sole mediator will be appointed by the court.9