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Oral Evidence under Indian Law


Oral evidence is dealt with here in compliance with Section 59 and 60 of the Evidence Act, 1872. The term 'oral' itself defines its essence as being articulated or conveyed through word by mouth; thus, something that is acknowledged by the law concerning the proceedings and communicated by any person who is summoned to the trial is referred to as oral testimony. Each testimony plays a vital role in the courts, and the use of oral evidence has been rising. Oral evidence is vitally valuable as it enhances a person and extracts what an individual has seen or needs to say concerning the trial. Oral testimony is generally simpler to respond to.


Except for the content material of papers and digital data, all the statistics and circumstances may be proven by oral evidence by conveying or speaking. Oral testimony can not support the substance of documentation and electronic archives. It is also held that if an individual is called upon to prove one's papers, then that paper will become oral and documentary evidence ends up losing its meaning.

Documentary proof becomes useless because the writer needs to be summoned to provide oral confirmation of the details in any situation Unless it is the case, which would mean that all testimony will be oral in the final interpretation and that oral proof will be practically the only form of evidence that the statute acknowledges.


It is the fundamental premise of all proof to be admissible as evidence of the law. When oral testimony is to be enforceable, all the requirements laid out in Section 60 of the Indian Evidence Act must be followed. If all of the above requirements are not satisfied, the proof would not be presented as oral testimony. If all of the above requirements are not satisfied, the proof would not be presented as oral testimony. The other has to be met in order to carry out one.

The fundamental premise as to which section 60 is founded is that the proof on which it applies must be clear. The term "direct" does not have any form of hearing because its key feature is the term "must." Each argument made based on oral testimony must be clear.


Hearsay is any information which is received by any person from any other source. Hearsay means when a person does not have personal knowledge about a particular matter or incident, and he has been informed about that particular matter by any other person. Hearsay implies that an individual has no prior awareness of a specific subject or event and has been told of the particular issue by some other source.

Only the law of the first-hand experience is recognized in order for oral testimony to be admissible. This just contains what a human sees explicitly, experiences and perceives. This just contains what a human sees explicitly, experiences and perceives.


Upon completion of the paper, oral testimony, in its can method, could be sufficient to pass judgment because it is shown beyond the shadow of a doubt. Earlier, it was seen as inadequate proof, but the need has been increasing in modern times. In my view, events and information would be best clarified employing oral processes, because the individual who conducted the event itself will clarify it more naturally than by means of written documentation.

Written By Abhishek Rai, Law Intern

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