top of page

Shame on mankind: Kathua case A brutal incident

The Kathua rape case refers to the abduction, rape, and murder of an 8-year-old girl, Asifa Bano, in RASANA village near kathua in JAMMU and KASHMIR, India, in January 2018. A chargesheet for the case was filed, the accused were arrested and nomad Bakarwal community. She disappeared for a week before her body was discovered by the villagers a kilometer away from the village. The incident made national news when charges were filed against eight men in April 2018. The arrests of the accused led to protests by the PANTHERS PARTY, along with other local groups. One of the protests, in support of the accused, was attended by two ministers from the BJP, both of whom later resigned. The rape and murder, as well as the support the accused received, sparked widespread outrage. On 10 June 2019, six of the seven defendants were convicted and one acquitted. Three of those convicted were sentenced to life in prison and three to five years In October 2019, court ordered a FIRST INFORMATION REPORT (FIR) against 6 members of the Special Investigation Team (SIT), which probed the case, for allegedly torturing and coercing witnesses to give false statements

The 5600-word chargesheet filed by a SENIOR SUPRETENDENT of POLICE of JAMMU, states that on 12 January 2018, Mohammad Yusuf lodged a complaint in the HIRANAGAR police station stating that his daughter had gone missing. His complaint said that his daughter, aged 8, had gone to watch over grazing horses 30 minutes past noon on 10 January 2018. She was seen at 2 PM, but when the horses returned at 4 PM, she was no longer with them. After searching for her and being unable to find her, her father registered a (FIR) with the police.

On 17 January 2018, the body of the victim was found and taken into custody by the police to allow an autopsy to be conducted. The postmortem was conducted by a team of doctors at the District Hospital in Kathua at 2:30 PM on the same day. On 22 January 2018, the investigation of the case was transferred to Crime Branch and Crime Headquarters, Jammu and Kashmir A statement released by the police listed seven individuals who had been arrested and charged over the crime, including four police officers. A total of eight people, including four police officers, were arrested Two of the police officers were arrested on suspicion of attempting to destroy evidence and of accepting money to cover up the incident. One of the accused claimed to be 15 years old, though a medical examination later suggested he was 19. Sanji Ram, one of the accused, was described by the police as having devised the plan of kidnap and murder The chargesheet against the seven adults accused of the crime was filed on 9 April. The accused were charged under Sections 302, 376, 201 and 120-B of the RANBIR PENAL CODE. A chargesheet against the remaining individual was under preparation.

Forensic Evidence

The post-mortem revealed the presence of clonazepam in the body of the dead girl. The examination by the doctors found that the girl had been drugged with a sedative before she was raped and murdered. Forensic evidence suggested that she had been held for several days by Sanji Ram, one of the individuals accused of the crime. Strands of hair recovered from the temple matched those taken from the girl. The forensic examination stated that Bano had been raped multiple times by different men, and that she had been strangled to death, as well as hit in the head with a heavy stone.

The Delhi Forensic Science Laboratory analyzed 14 packets of evidence containing vaginal swabs, hair strands, blood samples of four accused, viscera of the deceased girl, the girl's frock and salwar, simple clay, and blood stained clay. Vaginal swabs matched with the DNA of the accused as did some other samples. Hair strands found in the temple where Asifa was raped matched that of the girl and the accused.

The accused

Sanji Ram was found to be the main accused in the case. He is the priest of the family temple (devasthan), where the incident allegedly took place. The Hindu community of the village prays three times a day in that temple according to local people. His son Vishal and his nephew, a juvenile, were also accused in the case. The others who have been accused are Deepak Khajuria and Parvesh Kumar, who are police officers; Tilak Raj, a head constable and Arvind Dutta, a sub inspector. The police contested the claim that the nephew is a juvenile. Vishal Jangotra claimed to be in Meerut attending an exam. However, according to the Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL), his signature does not match the signature on the exam attendance sheet.

India is a country where the system speaks and volumes up its voice only after the certain incident has been completed successfully by the culprits and later the voice is raised where somewhere provides an assertiveness by its own will by some or the other way and the system is reasonable for the crimes which discriminates people on the basis of caste creed and reservations as a so called welfare for the society.

Three of the six convicted in the rape-and-murder case of an eight-year-old nomadic girl in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kathua were awarded life imprisonment by a special court in Pathankot today. The remaining three accused, all police personnel, were sentenced to five years imprisonment. The seventh accused, Vishal, was acquitted by the court. Sanji Ram, the caretaker of the temple where the crime took place, Special Police Officer Deepak Khajuria and Parvesh Kumar, a civilian, were convicted under Ranbir Penal Code sections and sentenced to life imprisonment. The trio was fined Rs 1 lakh each for murder along with 25 years in jail for gangrape, lawyers said. Three accomplices — Sub Inspector Anand Dutta, Head Constable Tilak Raj and special police officer Surender Verma — who were convicted for destruction of evidence, were handed over five years imprisonment.

According to the 15-page chargesheet, the eight-year-old girl, who was kidnapped on January 10, 2018, was allegedly raped in captivity in a small village temple in Kathua district after having been kept sedated for four days before she was bludgeoned to death. The case led to outrage across the country in January last year, with some groups in Jammu also coming out in support of the accused.


  • AIMIM president Asaduddin Owaisi said the BJP should answer why its ministers in the previous J&K government attended a rally in support of the accused in the Kathua case. "BJP needs to answer as to why their ministers came out in support of those accused," he was quoted as saying by PTI. Owaisi claimed ministers belonging to the BJP (in the erstwhile BJP-PDP coalition) attended a rally in support of the accused.

  • Welcoming the court's verdict, Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal tweeted, "Welcome court verdict in Kathua gangrape and murder of a minor girl. Those monsters who commit heinous crimes like Kathua and Aligarh deserve exemplary punishment."

  • Was expecting capital punishment for Kathua rape and murder criminals. The Jammu and Kashmir Government must go for appeal in a higher court," National Commission for Women chairperson Rekha Sharma was quoted as saying by ANI.

Three accomplices -- Sub Inspector Anand Dutta, Head Constable Tilak Raj and special police officer Surender Verma -- who were convicted for destruction of evidence, were handed over five years imprisonment, PTI said.


  • The three main accused were sentenced to life imprisonment and fined Rs 1 lakh each for murder along with 25 years in jail for gangrape, lawyers told PTI.

  • Sanji Ram, the caretaker of the temple where the crime took place, Special Police Officer Deepak Khajuria and Parvesh Kumar, a civilian, were convicted under Ranbir Penal Code sections pertaining to criminal conspiracy, murder, kidnapping, gangrape, destruction of evidence, drugging the victim and common intention.

  • The three main accused have also been sentenced to 25 years for charges of gangrape, PTI reported.

  • The remaining three convicted were sentenced to five years of imprisonment today.

  • "The guilty from Kathua rape-murder case are convicted- it gives me hope that such brutalities will not go unpunished. But it also makes me think of our collective consciousness as a society- why should Kathua or Aligarh happen? Need to educate our boys on how to treat and respect women," former Army chief and BJP MP VK Singh tweeted.

  • National Conference leader Omar Abdullah wrote that the guilty deserved the “most severe punishment.” “Amen to that. The guilty deserve the most severe punishment possible under law. And to those politicians who defended the accused, vilified the victim & threatened the legal system no words of condemnation are enough,” he tweeted.

  • Former Jammu and Kashmir chief minister and PDP chief Mufti tweeted, “Welcome the judgement. High time we stop playing politics over a heinous crime where an 8 year old child was drugged, raped repeatedly & then bludgeoned to death. Hope loopholes in our judicial system are not exploited & culprits get exemplary punishment.”

  • The prosecution team, comprising lawyers J K Chopra, S S Basra, Harminder Singh and Bhupinder Singh, issued a brief statement, saying they would examine the judgement and may go in for appeal against the sole acquittal. "We have sought capital punishment against all three accused convicted of murder and gang rape. It was hard work of all of us and a perfect blend of investigation and legal brains. We have achieve 99 per cent result," the statement said


  • January 10, 2018: Eight-year-old girl belonging to nomadic tribe went missing in Rasana village of Jammu and Kashmir’s Kathua district while she was grazing cattle.

  • January 12, 2018: An FIR was registered on the complaint of victim’s father at Hiranagar police station.

  • January 17, 2018: Body of the girl was found. Post mortem confirmed gang rape and murder.

  • January 22, 2018: Case was handed over to Jammu and Kashmir crime branch.

  • February 16, 2018: A right-wing group, Hindu Ekta Manch, held protests in support of one of the accused.

  • March 1, 2018: Two ministers of the BJP, part of the state’s ruling coalition with the PDP, Chander Prakash Ganga and Lal Singh, attended a rally organised by the Hindu Ekta Manch after the arrest of the nephew of a caretaker of a temple in connection with the kidnapping and rape.

  • April 9, 2018: The police filed the charge sheet before the Kathua court against seven of the eight accused.

  • April 10, 2018: Charge sheet filed against the eighth accused who had claimed to be a juvenile. The police filed an FIR against lawyers for protesting and attempting to prevent the crime branch officials from filing the charge sheet in the court on April 9.

  • April 14, 2018: BJP ministers who attended the Hindu Ekta Manch rally resigned from the state Cabinet. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres terms the crime “horrific” and asks authorities to deliver justice.

  • April 16, 2018: Trial began before the Principal Sessions Court judge, Kathua. All accused pleaded ‘not guilty’.

  • May 7, 2018: The Supreme Court shifted the case from Kathua to Pathankot in Punjab after the victim’s father approached the apex court saying that he apprehended threat to his family and counsel’s life in Jammu. The apex court directs the trial to be fast-tracked and held in-camera, away from media gaze.

  • June 3, 2019: Trial concludes after year-long proceedings with over 100 witnesses being examined

More about brutality and the limit that such monsters can cross

  • Those convicted are Sanji Ram, the village head, his juvenile nephew Anand Datta and two special police officers Deepak Khajuria and Surender Verma. Also convicted are Head Constable Tilak Raj and sub-inspector Anand Datta, who allegedly took Rs 4 lakh from Sanji Ram and destroyed crucial evidence. A seventh accused, Vishal, who is the son of main accused Sanji Ram, was acquitted.

  • Welcome to The Indian Express' live blog on Kathua rape verdict. Six of the seven accused have been held guilty. The quantum of punishment is likely to be announced by 2 pm. Follow this space to track the latest news


In January 2018, the victim girl had been held captive, as per the police, under the influence of sedatives at a Devsthan (prayer hall) after she disappeared on January 10. Her body was found seven days later in the forest of the Kathua village. The J&K Police Crime Branch investigation had revealed the girl's rape and murder was part of a conspiracy to "dislodge" a group of Bakerwal Muslim nomads from the Kathua village.

Even the lawyers in Kathua had attempted to prevent the prosecution from submitting the challan against accused persons before the court of law. The girl had to be buried 8KM away from her village as her body was not allowed to be buried in the local village.

Describing the murder, the police chargesheet states: "After committing the barbaric act of rape on the minor victim, the accused Khajuria kept her neck on his left thigh and started applying force with his hands on her neck in order to kill her; Khajuria was unsuccessful in killing her, the juvenile killed her by pressing his knees against her back while strangulating the girl by applying force on both the ends of her chunni. Thereafter, the accused in order to make sure that the victim is dead, hit her twice on the head with a stone."

The case was heard on nearly 242 days by the Sessions Court between May 31 last year to June 06, 2019. After the Kathua case, J&K Government had brought in an ordinance to provide for the death penalty for the rape of children below 12.

The trial was transferred from Jammu and Kashmir's Kathua to Pathankot in Punjab on orders of the Supreme Court last year to ensure a fair trial and safety of witnesses. The rape of an 8-year-old girl had sparked an outrage across the country even as many groups in Jammu and Kathua had come out in support of the accused persons.

The final arguments in the case concluded before the court of District and Sessions Judge Dr Tejwinder Singh on June 06. The prosecution and defence evidence concluded on May 27. The in-camera trial took place on a day-to-day basis, in accordance with the Supreme Court order, and began on May 31 last year. The chargesheet against the seven accused persons was submitted before the court on May 30. The accused remained in the Kathua District Jail during the period of trial.


Holding that perpetrators of the gangrape and murder of a girl in Kathua acted as if there is a “law of jungle” prevalent in the society, judge Tejwinder Singh summed up the enormity of the crime with a touching couplet by Mirza Ghalib which says that hunters had placed the net near a nest and the young one was caught before it could take its first flight.

In his judgment after hearing arguments from both sides for 367 days, Singh sentenced three accused to life imprisonment for criminal conspiracy and murder and three more to five years in jail for destruction of evidence. One accused was acquitted.

Singh started his order with the couplet from Ghalib’s ghazal—“Pinha tha daam-e-sakht qareeb ashiyaan ke, udhne hi nahi paye the ki girftar hum hue”.

Also cited by the Supreme Court in a 2011 case of murder of a sex worker in West Bengal, the couplet poignantly summed up the Kathua case which shook the conscience of the nation.

Singh said the couplet applies squarely to the facts of the present case.

“An unfortunate kidnapping, drugging, wrongful confinement, rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl has set the criminal law into motion and have put the accused persons under “Sword of Damocles’ for a fair trial,” he said.

After an in-camera trial which was held out of media gaze as per instructions of the Supreme Court, Singh delivered his judgement Monday.

Sanji Ram, the mastermind and caretaker of the ‘devasthanam’ (temple) where the crime took place in January last year, Deepak Khajuria, a Special Police Officer, and Parvesh Kumar, a civilian—the three main accused—were given life term.

Three police officers were sentenced to five-year imprisonment for cover up and destruction of evidence while Ram’s son Vishal was acquitted.

“In the present case, facts are many but truth is one that under a criminal conspiracy, an innocent eight-year-old minor girl has been kidnapped, wrongfully confined, drugged, raped and ultimately murdered. The perpetrators of this crime have acted in such a manner as if there is a ‘law of jungle’ prevalent in the society,” Singh said.

The 15-page charge sheet filed in April last year said the girl was kidnapped on January 10 that year and was raped in captivity in a small village temple, exclusively manned by Ram, after keeping her sedated for four days. She was later bludgeoned to death, it said.

The crime branch of J&K Police had filed the charge sheet against eight persons, including a juvenile.

The trial against the juvenile is yet to begin as his petition on determining his age is to be heard by the Jammu and Kashmir High Court. — PTI

By punishing six of the seven accused in the horrendous Kathua gang rape and murder of an eight-year-old, the judiciary has shown that justice is law’s business and not that of mobs, thereby reassuring society

By Pushp Saraf

One message has emerged loud and clear from the verdict of Pathankot’s district and sessions judge, Tejwinder Singh, punishing six of the seven accused in the Rasana (Kathua) gang rape and murder of an eight-year-old nomadic girl: the judiciary can and will conclusively overwhelm mobocracy to enforce the law of the land.

Step by step, the judiciary has demolished the gang mentality. The Supreme Court played a stellar role to pave the way for a fair trial, decisively shutting the door on those camouflaging their evil intention to disrupt it with politics and religion and at times both. In this context, the role of former J&K Chief Minister Mehbooba Mufti and the police crime branch also deserves kudos: the former pushed for investigation at considerable risk to the survival of her coalition government and the latter, once getting a go-ahead, brooked no resistance.

The apex court stepped into the picture to restore sanity after lawyers in Kathua prevented crime branch officials from filing a charge sheet in the chief judicial magistrate’s court on April 9, 2018 (they filed it at the magistrate’s home late in the night). Raising slogans, they demanded that the case be transferred to the CBI. The powerful Jammu-based Bar Association of the High Court joined the issue, mixing it with its protest against the illegal settlement of Rohingyas and Bangladeshis in the winter capital of J&K. It called for a strike and bandh. An organisation called the Hindu Ekta Manch raised its head in Kathua and held rallies in favour of the accused and waved the national flag and shouted slogans such as “Bharat mata ki jai” at one of its rallies. The BJP, riding high on communal and regional polarisation in J&K, lent support to such audacity when two of its ministers turned up at one of its demonstrations and were exposed to the charge of inciting the crowd. There was sharp reaction in the Muslim-dominated Valley on the other side of the Pir Panjal as people demanded justice for the victim.

At one stage, it did appear that the issue of the brutalities inflicted on an innocent child would be lost in the political and religious din. The nation was appalled. It poured its heart out on social media and staged candlelit marches to express solidarity with the victim. Celebrities expressed concern about the country’s image but were sought to be harassed. Tennis star Sania Mirza’s credentials were questioned as an Indian for having married top Pakistani cricketer Shoaib Malik after she tweeted: “Is this really the kind of country we want to be known as to the world today?? If we can’t stand up now for this 8 year old girl regardless of our gender, caste, colour or religion then we don’t stand for anything in this world…not even humanity…makes me sick to the stomach.” She stood her ground and hit back: “First of all nobody marries ‘into’ anywhere…you marry a person! Secondly NO LOW LIFE like you will tell me which country I belong to…I play for India, I am Indian and always will be…and maybe if u look beyond religion and country one day you may just also stand for humanity!”

The Supreme Court moved in swiftly and chastened those indulging in bluff and bluster. It taught quite a few lessons; the first was for the legal fraternity itself. On April 13, 2018, a three-judge bench of then Chief Justice Dipak Misra and Justices AM Khanwilkar and DY Chandrachud observed: “In our considered opinion no lawyer can prevent the advocates representing the accused or victim’s family in the case… Obstruction of process of law and delivery of justice, and that too by lawyers cannot be condoned and is unethical. Access to justice cannot be impeded by lawyers… It is impermissible under law and is unethical to prevent filing of charge sheet or oppose representation of victim’s family by lawyers.”

In a subsequent hearing, they were not impressed by the High Court Bar Association’s plea that it had not supported the lawyers’ protest in Kathua and that its call for a strike was over a different issue that got mixed up with the filing of the charge sheet. The chief justice remarked: “Whatever may be the background, the resultant action was wrong.” He added: “We are only concerned with a fair trial. They went on strike. That is wrong. Rule of law stands on the highest pedestal. Not just this case. We are concerned with other cases too. This should not happen in any case.” The Kathua lawyers washed their hands of the strike, saying that they had called it off.

The agitating lawyers darted for cover and the next lot to do so was the media. Some prominent media houses learnt at a bitter cost that publishing the name of a rape victim just because she was no more is unlawful. Acting Chief Justice Gita Mittal (incidentally, chief justice of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court at present) and Justice C Hari Shankar of the Delhi High Court, taking suo motu notice, reprimanded and fined them Rs 10 lakh each for revealing the identity of the Kathua victim. The bench also directed wide and continuous publicity for the statutory provisions of law regarding privacy of victims of sexual offences and punishment for revealing their identities.

Carrying on its salutary work, the Supreme Court on May 7 further removed any ambiguity there was about the definition of a fair trial. It observed: “A fair trial is a sacrosanct principle under Article 21 of the Constitution of India and a ‘fair trial’ means fair to the accused persons, as well as to the victims of the crime. The fair trial commands that there has to be free atmosphere where the victims, the accused and the witnesses feel safe. They must not suffer from any kind of phobia while attending the court.” It ordered the transfer of the trial to the district and sessions judge of Pathankot (in neighbouring Punjab) to be conducted under the Ranbir Penal Code, which is the criminal code applicable to J&K. While doing so, it took cognisance of, among other arguments, the report of the district and sessions judge of Kathua to the Jammu and Kashmir High Court about attempts to influence the process of filing the charge sheet. Orders were issued for providing security to the victim’s family and lawyers and the transfer of the accused to a jail in Punjab.

Almost simultaneously, on April 13, there was fallout on the political front. Breaking his silence some three months after the post-mortem had confirmed the gang rape and murder on January 17, 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi clubbed the incident with a similar heinous crime in Unnao in Uttar Pradesh, and tweeted: “Our daughters will get justice.” His belated reaction coincided with UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres terming the Kathua crime “horrific” and asserted that “the guilty must be held responsible”. Two BJP ministers, Choudhary Lal Singh (Forest) and Chander Prakash Ganga (Industry and Commerce), who were under fire for attending the Hindu Ekta Manch rallies, submitted their resignations from the Mehbooba Mufti-led coalition government, apparently following instructions from the top.

All this happened in 2018. The Supreme Court completely cracked down on herd behaviour. It ordered in-camera proceedings, fixed the number of lawyers who could be present in court at a given time and pre-empted interference from other courts. These ground rules provided Justice Tejwinder Singh with the foundation to build a glorious edifice in 2019. He has lived up to the trust reposed in him by the apex court to fast-track his task in about a year.

Admittedly, the last word has not been heard so far on this issue. Going by the utterances of relatives and lawyers of the convicts, it is evident that they are gearing up to challenge the verdict in the High Court.

Ahfadul Mujtaba, J&K’s Inspector-General of Police (Crime Branch), who headed the investigation, is satisfied with the “conviction of the accused but not with the quantum of their sentence”, indicating that he may seek enhanced punishment. One of his close colleagues in the case, Senior Superintendent of Police Ramesh Kumar Jalla has attained superannuation this year, while another colleague, Naveed Peerzada, a 2004 Kashmir Police Service officer who headed the Special Investigation Team, is currently on assignment with the UN.

Whatever happens in future will be within the contours fixed by the Supreme Court that justice is law’s business, not that of mobs. The apex court reiterated its stand while dealing with mob lynchings on July 17, 2018: “The horrendous acts of mobocracy cannot be permitted to inundate the law of the land. Earnest action and concrete steps have to be taken to protect the citizens from the recurrent pattern of violence which cannot be allowed to become ‘the new normal’. The State cannot turn a deaf ear to the growing rumblings of its People, since its concern, to quote Woodrow Wilson, ‘must ring with the voices of the people.’ The exigencies of the situation require us to sound a clarion call for earnest action to strengthen our inclusive and all-embracing social order which would, in turn, reaffirm the constitutional faith.”

This is very reassuring for peace-loving citizens.

Although the nation has been knowing some of such cases against which the voice has been raised on the national level. But the statistics and the registered cases if gone once through every one of us would be of extreme grievance and shocking that we take breathe in such environment. Bharat ki beti apne he desh me surakshit nahi aur iski wajah hain sirf kuch chand aise log jinme insaniyat nahi bachi jo kabhi majhab ke naam par to kabhi apni hawas ke shikaar ke liye apne he desh ki behen aur maa ki aabrooh loot rahe hain. No religion teaches or encourages terrorism or any crime and we are so helpless that we’re unable to stop this . Somewhere or the other the system the people and the humanity is reasonable for such heinous crimes. In India, a rape is reported every 15 minutes, according to recently released official government crime data. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data from 2018 has stark revelations about crime in the country. These are only the results and updates which are known to the system and government. We may do call India as a developed nation but every Indian has to rethink that is it truly developed under such circumstances and with the environment where 60% of the social evil practices are still behind the curtains and hiding under the heap of money and power. We do shout and raise our voices only after the crisis has occurred can’t we act before against such barbaric acts which are shameful for the society and nation by the way of employment because employment won’t encourage theft and robbery and along with these some crimes like murder,defamation,slander etc would be reduced.

We cannot completely make responsible to the government for this atlast as an Indian it’s a responsibility of every person in the nation for its reputation in every way .

The NCRB data is usually released after two years, annually. Under the Narendra Modi government the data was inordinately delayed and some aspects are still missing. However, the data on violence against women throws up shocking figures for 2018.

Despite various federal government campaigns such as Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – Educate the daughter, Save the daughter – the crime rate per 100,000 women increased to 58.8% in 2018 in comparison with 57.9% in 2017.A recent verdict in a Delhi gang-rape case handed down after seven years leaves much to be desired.In 2012, the case of young Delhi-based woman Jyoti Singh, christened Nirbhaya (Fearless) by the media, shook the nation. She was abducted by a group of men and repeatedly raped on a moving bus. They also mutilated her body before throwing her from the bus.

Though every Indian has the right to speech one’s voice is supressed if he dares to raise it against the system either by money or power. Indirectly or directly this is the thing which influences other people to lose their integrity at the cost of some pages printed digits (money). Are this pages so important and worth more than the cost of integrity, self esteem, respect, humanity, generosity and kindness.

In the nation where people and great prophets saints and holy people have born and taught everyone the laws of living and humanity it is very shameful for everyone that devils and monsters are being created.

It is truly a deep matter of concern which has to revolved in an efficient way until then India won’t be fully worthy be called as ‘ Saare jahan se achha'. Instead of pointing and blaming each other every one of us should take an initiative by himself starting from ownself at the first. If the things doesn’t act morally by being Gandhiji then its of no worry that everyone has to look back for being Jhansi ki Rani.

Atlast forever and beyond eternity I will say My India My Nation My Pride My Love.



27 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

I. BACKGROUND The advancement of internet trend has caused a shift in the business sector. Many business organisations have migrated to the internet realm of marketing and commerce, inc

Introduction Black’s law dictionary defines Double Jeopardy as: – A second prosecution after a first trial for the same offense. In India, protection against double jeopardy could be an elementary rig

INTRODUCTION Indian Parliament, in the preceding year passed three bills related to agriculture and farming, together known as the Farmers Bill. The Bills include The Farmer’s Produce Trade and Commer

bottom of page