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The medical profession is highly respected in the society. Doctors privately practice or in hospital services try their best to treat patients with ordinary care and diligence. Even then, at that point there are numerous medical negligence claims which come before consumer courts and also before criminal and civil Courts. Now it's been covered under the buyer Protection Act 1986. Medical negligence emerges when there is a disappointment concerning a medical expert to take sufficient consideration and thus it causes harm or injury to the patient. It is to be noted here that, each treatment doesn't prompt achievement and each treatment doesn't save the existence of the patient. Any disappointment in relieving the illness or saving the existence won't be treated as negligence with respect to medical experts. The definition of ‘Medical Negligence’ has remained unchanged over time “Failure to exercise reasonable skill as per the overall standards and therefore the prevalent situation is termed as medical negligence. Medical negligence emerges when there is a disappointment concerning a medical expert to take adequate care and as a result , it causes harm or injury to the patient. It is to be noted that, each treatment doesn't prompt achievement and each treatment does not save the life of patient. Any failure in curing the disease or saving the life won't be treated as negligence on a part of medical professionals. In order to qualify an act of medical professional as medical negligence, it's essential to determine that:

  • there was a legal duty with respect to supposed medical expert

  • this duty is towards the patient in discussion there's a breach of that legal duty; and

  • because of such breach of duty, the patient suffers an injury or death take place.

Legal framework of medical negligence:

The idea of forcing medical negligence is a new idea however it has created over the most recent couple of hundreds of years. There are next to no lawful commitments were there around then regarding medical negligence, one striking component is that the responsibility was criminal instead of a common commitment. In present day times, the lawful structure managing medical negligence can be broadly classified into three:

  • Civil law framework

  • Criminal law framework

  • Professional misconduct

The Civil law framework:

The civil framework in India includes law of torts actions under Consumer Protection Act (Deficiency in medical service) and actions under Indian Contract law ( Breach of contract).

Tort of medical negligence is a tort in which a medical professional (defendant) fails to take adequate care while providing his service to a patient (plaintiff) and which results injury to such patient. In other words an act or omission which causes a breach of duty to take care by a medical professional and thereby causes injury to a patient is termed as tort of medical negligence. In the case of Dr .L. B Joshi (1969), the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India has explained that, a medical professional has the following duties to carry out towards a patient such as duty of care in deciding whether to undertake the case.

Duty of care in choosing what treatment to give; and duty of care in the organization of that treatment. Hence breach of any of our these duty can be considered as an instance of misdeed of medical negligence. Medical negligence can be considered as a lack in medical help under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Lack comparable to medical services implies any deficiency, flaw weakness or insufficiency in the quality, nature and way of execution of which is needed to be kept up by or under any law for time being in power or has been attempted to be performed by an individual in compatibility of an agreement or in any case corresponding to medical help. Subsequently all the medical negligence cases can be brought under the meaning of insufficiency in medical assistance and patient can guarantee cure under Consumer Protection Act. It is to be noted here both medical negligence and inadequacy in help are utilized conversely for showing something very similar, yet there is a distinction between these two wordings. To comprise a lack in medical help, a basic break of obligation with or without injury is adequate, on the off chance that the penetrate brings about harm, such insufficiency would add up to misdeed of medical negligence too.

Consumer Protection Act Criminal law :

Since 1990's there is a massive speculation and discussion on whether medical administrations are explicitly or completely remembered for the meaning of "Services" as revered under Section 2(1)(o) of the Consumer Protection Act (CPA) or Deficiency of service[16] implies any fault, defect, deficiency, or shortcoming in the quality, nature, or way of execution that is required to be kept up by or under any law for the time being in power or has been attempted to be performed by an individual person in pursuance of an agreement or in any case about any service. Indian criminal Law has set the medical profession on an alternate balance when compared with a standard human. Section 304A of the Indian legal code of 1860 states that "whoever causes the death of a private by a rash or careless negligent not adding up to culpable homicide will be punished with imprisonment for a period of two years, or with fine or with both. In this manner, when an individual occupied with the commission of an offence inside the significance of IPC and causes death by carelessness or negligence, however without either planning to cause death, or thinking it likely that he will cause that, he should be obligated for the discipline of the offence which he was occupied with committing added to the ordinary punishment of involuntary culpable homicide. Criminal liability can likewise be forced upon a doctor under specific circumstances wherein the patient passes on during the hour of regulating sedation in an operation, the death can also be due to malicious intention or gross negligence. Many a time the doctor will likewise be responsible vicariously, which means along these lines if his representative or worker thoughtlessly causes the demise of a patient. In that case, the worker also the doctor are going to be liable thanks to the principle of ‘Vicarious Liability’ under Tort law.

According to section 88, an individual can't be blamed for an offense if she/ he performs an act in good faith for the other’s benefit, does not plan to cause harm regardless of whether there is a danger, and the patient has explicitly or implicitly given consent. It is to be noted here that, for the conviction of a medical expert for a supposed criminal offense, the standard should be a proof of wildness and intentional wrong doing. In this manner, to convict, a medical expert, the prosecution needs to come out with an instance of serious level of negligence with respect to such expert. Hence a simple absence of appropriate consideration, safety measure and consideration or accident may make civil liability yet not a criminal one.The Indian judiciary has clearly laid in number of cases that while imposing criminal negligence and its liability to a medical professional, there should be a proof of high degree of negligence or recklessness. The Court has also laid down several guidelines dealing with criminal medical negligence cases against medical professionals.

Professional Misconduct:

The Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette, and Ethics) Regulations, 2002 sets out specific obligations and duties of medical experts towards their patients, to the overall population, towards one another and to paramedical professionals. Infringement of any arrangement of the guideline is a ground for activity under professional misconduct. A medical specialist will not contravene the provisions of Drugs and Cosmetics Act and guidelines made thereunder. Recommending steroids and psychotropic medications without total medical sign and selling plan 'H' and 'L' and toxic substance to general public falls under contravention of the act. Infringement of the rules of ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) identified with clinical drug trial and other exploration on patients or volunteers establishes unfortunate behaviour. Consent should be taken from the patients or volunteers for such trials and research should conform to the rules of ICMR. The commission of negligence by medical professionals would sums to an expert unfortunate behaviour with respect to medical professionals according to the Medical Code of Ethics, 2002 received by The Medical Council of India. In the event that the negligence is effectively settled on part of a doctor, the disciplinary committee can either issue a warning, suspend from the registered list or release form the said list.

In the case of Achutrao Haribhua khodwa and Ors vs The State of Maharashtra

the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India has explained that in the actual idea of the medical profession, abilities and skills differs from one doctor to another, and there is more than one admissible course of operation. In this manner, negligence can't be attributed to a doctor so long as he is doing his duty with due care, alert, and attention. Only in light of the fact that the doctor chooses one course of action over other, he won’t be liable.


The concept of medical negligence as we have seen is essentially one the guideline of which is profoundly engrained in Tort Law . The present lawful situation concerning Criminal Liability of a doctor is that it can't be fixed upon the specialist except if there is a prima facie of gross negligence and wildness. Based on the translation of the legal choices of the High Court certain guideline have been given which can, whenever executed successfully assist the courts with building up the law on medical negligence which at the present is confronted with numerous impediment furthermore, has seen incessant stops in a few cases. It is necessary for the medical profession to undertake some serious introspection. The Medical Sector must accept the very fact that it's failed miserably in self-governance. To quote Mahatma Gandhi, “It is health that is a person’s real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver”.

So as an moral commitment All the concerned specialists whether it is the clinic, Government, Medical Council or some other foundation running after advancement of medical care offices should cooperate and find ways to give quality medical care , sufficient medical care, accessibility of essential medical care.





By Ayushi Keshari

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